Heart Health


Acai berry

  • Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1993 Sep 1;90(17):7915-
  • Mertens-Talcott SU, Rios J, Jilma-Stohlawetz P, et al. Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and antioxidant effects after the consumption of anthocyanin-rich açai juice and pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) in human healthy volunteers. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:7796-802.
  • Schauss AG, Wu X, Prior RL, Ou B, Huang D, Owens J, Agarwal A, Jensen GS, Hart AN, Shanbrom E. Antioxidant capacity and other bioactivities of the freeze-dried Amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai). J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Nov 1;54(22):8604-10.

Acetyl L-carnitine

  • Saheki T., Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University. [Carnitine as a vitamin-like biofactor]. Nippon Rinsho 1999 Oct;57(10):2270-5.  
  • Mangano NG, et al. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on ethanol consumption and alcohol abstinence syndrome in rats. Drugs Exp Clin Res 2000;26(1):7-12.  
  • Ando S, et al. Enhancement of learning capacity and cholinergic synaptic function by carnitine in aging rats. J Neurosci Res 2001 Oct 15;66(2):266-71.  
  • Pettegrew JW, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer’s disease and geriatric depression. Mol Psychiatry 2000 Nov;5(6):616-32.  
  • Sorbi S, et al. Double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial with L-acetylcarnitine in patients with degenerative cerebellar ataxia. Clin Neuropharmacol 2000 Mar-Apr;23(2):114-8.


  • Babizhayev MA, Deyev AI, Yermakova VN, et al. Efficacy of N-acetylcarnosine in the treatment of cataracts. Drugs R D. 2002;3(2): 87-103.
  • Babizhayev MA, Deyev AI, Yermakova VN, et al. N-Acetylcarnosine, a natural histidine-containing dipeptide, as a potent ophthalmic drug in treatment of human cataracts. Peptides. 2001;22(6):979-94.
  • Babizhayev MA. Analysis of lipid peroxidation and electron microscopic survey of maturation stages during human cataractogenesis: pharmacokinetic assay of Can-C N-acetylcarnosine prodrug lubricant eye drops for cataract prevention. Drugs R D. 2005;6(6):345-69.
  • Karumanchi DK, Karunaratne N, Lurio L, et al. Non-enzymatic glycation of alpha-crystallin as an in vitro model for aging, diabetes and degenerative diseases. Amino Acids. 2015;47(12):2601-8.
  • Oimomi M, Maeda Y, Hata F, et al. Glycation of cataractous lens in non-diabetic senile subjects and in diabetic patients. Exp Eye Res. 1988;46(3):415-20.
  • Babizhayev MA, Burke L, Micans P, et al. N-Acetylcarnosine sustained drug delivery eye drops to control the signs of ageless vision: glare sensitivity, cataract amelioration and quality of vision currently available treatment for the challenging 50,000-patient population. Clin Interv Aging. 2009;4:31-50.
  • Gimbel HV, Dardzhikova AA. Consequences of waiting for cataract surgery. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2011;22(1):28-30.

Alpha-lipoic Acid

  • Packer L, Tritschler HJ, Wessel K. Neuroprotection by the metabolic antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid. Free Radic Biol Med. 1997;22(1-2):359-78. 
  • Da Ros R, Assaloni R, Ceriello A. Molecular targets of diabetic vascular complications and potential new drugs. Curr Drug Targets. 2005 Jun;6(4):503-9. 
  • Ceriello A. New insights on oxidative stress and diabetic complications may lead to a “causal” antioxidant therapy. Diabetes Care. 2003 May;26(5):1589-96. 
  • Ziegler D, Hanefeld M, Ruhnau KJ, et al. Treatment of symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy with the anti-oxidant alpha-lipoic acid. A 3-week multicentre randomized controlled trial (ALADIN Study). Diabetologia. 1995 Dec;38(12):1425-33.


  • Stenesen D, Suh JM, Seo J, et al. Adenosine nucleotide biosynthesis and AMPK regulate adult life span and mediate the longevity benefit of caloric restriction in flies. Cell Metab. 2013 Jan 8;17(1):101-12.


  • Scartezzini P, Speroni E. Review on some plants of Indian traditional medicine with antioxidant activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Jul;71(1-2):23-43. 
  • Siddiqui IA, Adhami VM, Afaq F, Ahmad N, Mukhtar H. Modulation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B- and mitogen-activated protein kinase-pathways by tea polyphenols in human prostate cancer cells. J Cell Biochem. 2004 Feb 1;91(2):232-42.
  • Manjunatha S, Jaryal AK, Bijlani RL, Sachdeva U, Gupta SK. Effect of chyawanprash and vitamin C on glucose tolerance and lipoprotein profile. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2001 Jan;45(1):71-9.
  • Scartezzini P, Speroni E. Review on some plants of Indian traditional medicine with antioxidant activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Jul;71(1-2):23-43. 
  • Ali R, Alexander KP. Statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events in older adults: a review of the evidence. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2007 Mar;5(1):52-63. 
  • Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Sairam K, Ghosal S. Effect of bioactive tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis on ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative stress in rat heart. Phytomedicine. 2002 Mar;9(2):171-4.
  • Damodaran M, Nair KR. A tannin from the Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica) with a protective action on ascorbic acid. Biochem J. 1936 Jun;30(6):1014-20. 
  • Doncheva NI, Nikolov KV, Vassileva DP. Lipid-modifying and pleiotropic effects of gemfibrozil, simvastatin and pravastatin in patients with dyslipidemia. Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2006;48(3-4):56-61.


  • Semba RD, Blaum C, Guralnik JM, et al. Carotenoid and vitamin E status are associated with indicators of sarcopenia among older women living in the community. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2003 Dec;15(6):482-7. 
  • Harman, D. Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. The University of California Radiation Laboratory Report, No. 3078. 1955 Jul 15; Univ. of California, Berkley, CA. Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM. 
  • Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1993 Sep 1;90(17):7915-22.


  • Pharm Res. 2010;27(6):962-78. Fitoterapia. 2000;71(Suppl. 1):S117-S123. 
  • Data on File. Connectivity Map (CMAP) Analysis. 2018. 
  • Mol Carcinog. 2019;58(6):996-1007. 
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  • Patel D, Shukla S, Gupta S. Apigenin and cancer chemoprevention: progress, potential and promise (review). Int J Oncol. 2007;30(1):233-45. 
  • Klaunig JE, Kamendulis LM, Hocevar BA. Oxidative stress and oxidative damage in carcinogenesis. Toxicol Pathol. 2010;38(1):96-109. 
  • Kiraly O, Gong G, Olipitz W, et al. Inflammation-induced cell proliferation potentiates DNA damage-induced mutations in vivo. PLoS Genet. 2015;11(2):e1004901. 


  • Bruce, Debra Fulghum, PhD. "Arginine: Heart Benefits and Side Effects." WebMD,
  • "L-arginine." Mayo Clinic, February 2021,


  • Deshpande A, Irani N, Balkrishnan R, et al. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study to evaluate the effects of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extract on sleep quality in healthy adults. Sleep Med. 2020 Aug;72:28-36.

  • Guerin M, Huntley ME, Olaizola M. Haematococcus astaxanthin: applications for human health and nutrition. Trends Biotechnol. 2003;21(5):210-6
  • Choi S, Koo S. Efficient syntheses of the keto-carotenoids canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, and astacene. J Org Chem. 2005;70(8):3328-31.
  • Hussein G, Sankawa U, Goto H, et al. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid with potential in human health and nutrition. J Nat Prod. 2006;69(3):443-9.
  • Fassett RG, Coombes JS. Astaxanthin, oxidative stress, inflammation and cardiovascular disease. Future Cardiol. 2009;5(4):333-42.
  • Zhang L, Wang H. Multiple Mechanisms of Anti-Cancer Effects Exerted by Astaxanthin. Mar Drugs. 2015;13(7):4310-30.


  • Mikirova NA, Jackson JA, Hunninghake R, et al. Nutraceutical augmentation of circulating endothelial progenitor cells and hematopoietic stem cells in human subjects. J Transl Med. 2010;8:34.

B12 vitamin

  • Grober U, Kisters K, Schmidt J. Neuroenhancement with vitamin B12-underestimated neurological significance. Nutrients. 2013 Dec 12;5(12):5031-45.
  • Vogiatzoglou A, Refsum H, Johnston C, et al. Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly. Neurology. 2008 Sep 9;71(11):826-32.
  • Kobe T, Witte AV, Schnelle A, et al. Vitamin B-12 concentration, memory performance, and hippocampal structure in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Apr;103(4):1045-54.
  • Schaffner A, Li X, Gomez-Llorente Y, et al. Vitamin B12 modulates Parkinson's disease LRRK2 kinase activity through allosteric regulation and confers neuroprotection. Cell Res. 2019 Apr;29(4):313-29.
  • O'Leary F, Samman S. Vitamin B12 in health and disease. Nutrients. 2010 Mar;2(3):299-316.
  • Nohr D, Biesalski HK. Vitamin B12. Reference Module in Food Science: Elsevier; 2016.
  • Available at: Accessed February 10, 2021. 
  • Available at: Accessed February 10, 2021.

  • AbuMoh'd, Mohammad Fayiz et al. "Effects of Oral Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) Intake on Muscular and Central Fatigue During an Incremental Exercise." Journal of Human Kinetics, March 2020,
  • Arroyo-Cerezo, Alejandra et al. "Intake of branched chain amino acids favors post-exercise muscle recovery and may improve muscle function: optimal dosage regimens and consumption conditions." The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, February 2021,
  • Bonvini, A. et al. "Immunomodulatory role of branched-chain amino acids." Nutrition Reviews, November 2018,
  • Doma, Kenji et al. "The effect of branched-chain amino acid on muscle damage markers and performance following strenuous exercise: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism, October 2021,
  • Ismaiel, Abdulrahman et al. "Effects of Branched-Chain Amino Acids on Parameters Evaluating Sarcopenia in Liver Cirrhosis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." Frontiers in nutrition, January 2022,
  • Khemtong, Chutimon et al. "Does Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) Supplementation Attenuate Muscle Damage Markers and Soreness after Resistance Exercise in Trained Males? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials." Nutrients, May 2021,


  • Grotto, D. 101 Foods That Could Save Your Life. New York: Bantam Bell; 2008. 
  • Lila MA. Anthocyanins and Human Health: An In Vitro Investigative Approach. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2004;(5): 306–13.
  • Available at: Accessed December 28, 2009. 
  • Bovell B. Sweet Potato: a review of its past, present and future role in human nutrition. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2007;52:1-59. 
  • Available at: Accessed December 28, 2009. 6. Grodstein F, Kang JH, Glynn RJ, Cook NR, 
  • Gaziano JM. A randomized trial of beta carotene supplementation and cognitive function in men: the Physicians’ Health Study II. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Nov 12;167(20):2184-90. 
  • Washio M, Mori M, Sakauchi F, et al. Risk Factors for kidney cancer in a Japanese population: findings from the JACC study. J Epidemiol. 2005 Jun; 15 Suppl 2:S203-11.


  • J Immunotoxicol. 2008 Jan;5(1):47-57. 
  • J Am Coll Nutr.1997 Feb;16(1):46-5. 
  • Dev Biol Stand. 1992;77:191-7. Hum Cell. 1990 Jun;3(2):124-30. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1996 Oct 25;797:285-7. 
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  • Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 May Suppl 1;40(5):S353. 


  • Arboleya S, Watkins C, Stanton C, et al. Gut Bifidobacteria Populations in Human Health and Aging. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:1204.
  • Finegold SM, Li Z, Summanen PH, et al. Xylooligosaccharide increases bifidobacteria but not lactobacilli in human gut microbiota. Food Funct. 2014;5(3):436-45.
  • Na MH, Kim WK. Effects of Xylooligosaccharide Intake on Fecal Bifidobacteria, Lactic acid and Lipid Metabolism in Korean Young Women. Korean J Nutr. 2007;40(2):154-61.

  • h
  • Persson IA, Persson K, Andersson RG. Effect of Vaccinum myrtillus and its polyphenols on angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in human endothelial cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jun 10;57(11):4626-9.
  • Takikawa M, Inoue S, Horio F, Tsuda T. Dietary anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in diabetic mice. J Nutr. 2010 Mar;140(3):527-33.
  • Eating more berries may reduce cognitive decline in the elderly: flavonoid-rich blueberries and strawberries offer most benefit. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2012 Aug;27(5):358.
  • Kalea AZ, Lamari FN, Theocharis AD, et al. Wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) consumption affects the composition and structure of glycosaminoglycans in Sprague-Dawley rat aorta. J Nutr Biochem. 2006 Feb;17(2):109-16.

  • Mahabir S, Spitz MR, Barrera SL, et al. Dietary boron and hormone replacement therapy as risk factors for lung cancer in women. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167(9):1070-80.
  • Gallardo-Williams MT, Chapin RE, King PE, et al. Boron supplementation inhibits the growth and local expression of IGF-1 in human prostate adenocarcinoma (LNCaP) tumors in nude mice. Toxicol Pathol. 2004;32(1):73-8. 3.
  • Gorustovich AA, Steimetz T, Nielsen FH, et al. A histomorphometric study of alveolar bone modelling and remodelling in mice fed a boron-deficient diet. Arch Oral Biol. 2008;53(7):677-82.


  • Anglin R, Yuan Y, Moayyedi P, Tse F, Armstrong D, Leontiadis GI. Risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with or without concurrent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory use: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014 Jun;109(6):811-9.
  • Rakoff-Nahoum S. Why cancer and inflammation? Yale J Biol Med. 2006 Dec;79(3-4):123-30. 
  • Siddiqui MZ. Boswellia serrata, a potential antiinflammatory agent: an overview. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2011 May;73(3):255-61. 
  • Kaufman DW, Kelly JP, Rosenberg L, Anderson TE, Mitchell AA. Recent patterns of medication use in the ambulatory adult population of the United States: the Slone survey. JAMA. 2002 Jan 16;287(3):337-44.



  • Burdock. Review of Natural Products. Facts & Comparisons [database online]. St. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Health Inc; October 2014.

C vitamin

  • Falcone M, Russo A, Cangemi R, et al. Lower mortality rate in elderly patients with community-onset pneumonia on treatment with aspirin. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015;4(1). 
  • Ruiz LA, Zalacain R, Capelastegui A, et al. Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia in elderly and very elderly patients: host- and pathogen-related factors, process of care, and outcome. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Aug;69(8):1018-24.
  • Levy R, Shriker O, Porath A, Riesenberg K, Schlaeffer F. Vitamin C for the treatment of recurrent furunculosis in patients with imparied neutrophil functions. J Infect Dis. 1996 Jun;173(6):1502-5.



Carnitine (L-carnitine)

  • Ames BN. Optimal micronutrients delay mitochondrial decay and age-associated diseases. Mech Ageing Dev. 2010 Jul-Aug;131(7-8):473-9.
  • Noland RC, Koves TR, Seiler SE, et al. Carnitine insufficiency caused by aging and overnutrition compromises mitochondrial performance and metabolic control. J Biol Chem. 2009 Aug 21;284(34):22840-52.
  • Abdul HM, Calabrese V, Calvani M, Butterfield DA. Acetyl-L-carnitine-induced up-regulation of heat shock proteins protects cortical neurons against amyloid-beta peptide 1-42-mediated oxidative stress and neurotoxicity: implications for Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci Res. 2006 Aug 1;84(2):398-408.
  • Terman A, Kurz T, Navratil M, Arriaga EA, Brunk UT. Mitochondrial turnover and aging of long-lived postmitotic cells: the mitochondrial-lysosomal axis theory of aging. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010 Apr;12(4):503-35.
  • Dutta D, Calvani R, Bernabei R, Leeuwenburgh C, Marzetti E. Contribution of impaired mitochondrial autophagy to cardiac aging: mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities. Circ Res. 2012 Apr 13;110(8):1125-38. 
  • Maasen JA. Mitochondria, body fat and type 2 diabetes: what is the connection? Minerva Med. 2008 Jun;99(3):241-51. Wang CH, Wang CC, Wei YH. 
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction in insulin insensitivity: implication of mitochondrial role in type 2 diabetes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 Jul;1201:157-65. 
  • Bernard A, Rigault C, Mazue F, Le Borgne F, Demarquoy J. L-carnitine supplementation and physical exercise restore age-associated decline in some mitochondrial functions in the rat. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008 Oct;63(10):1027-33.
  • Tanaka Y, Sasaki R, Fukui F, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine supplementation restores decreased tissue carnitine levels and impaired lipid metabolism in aged rats. J Lipid Res. 2004 Apr;45(4):729-35.
  • Pesce V, Fracasso F, Cassano P, Lezza AM, Cantatore P, Gadaleta MN. Acetyl-L-carnitine supplementation to old rats partially reverts the age-related mitochondrial decay of soleus muscle by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis. Rejuvenation Res. 2010 Apr-Jun;13(2-3):148-51.


  • Joseph A, Maliakkal Balakrishnan A, Natinga Mulakal J, et al. A green approach for the sustained-intestinal delivery of red chili (Capsicum annum L) extracted capsaicinoids with enhanced bioavailability. Journal of Functional Foods. 2021 2021/10/01/;85:104658.
  • Lv J, Qi L, Yu C, et al. Consumption of spicy foods and total and cause specific mortality: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2015 Aug 4;351:h3942.
  • Shi Z, Riley M, Taylor AW, et al. Chilli consumption and the incidence of overweight and obesity in a Chinese adult population. Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 Jul;41(7):1074-9.
  • Zheng J, Zheng S, Feng Q, et al. Dietary capsaicin and its anti-obesity potency: from mechanism to clinical implications. Biosci Rep. 2017 Jun 30;37(3).
  • Joseph MA, John Ph DF, Thomas MJV, et al. Influence of a Novel Food-Grade Formulation of Red Chili Extract (Capsicum annum) on Overweight Subjects: Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study. J Diet Suppl. 2021;18(4):387-405.
  • Whiting S, Derbyshire E, Tiwari BK. Capsaicinoids and capsinoids. A potential role for weight management? A systematic review of the evidence. Appetite. 2012 Oct;59(2):341-8.
  • Varghese S, Kubatka P, Rodrigo L, et al. Chili pepper as a body weight-loss food. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Jun;68(4):392-401.


  • Caruso G. Unveiling the Hidden Therapeutic Potential of Carnosine, a Molecule with a Multimodal Mechanism of Action: A Position Paper. Molecules. 2022 May 20;27(10).
  • Fournet M, Bonte F, Desmouliere A. Glycation Damage: A Possible Hub for Major Pathophysiological Disorders and Aging. Aging Dis. 2018 Oct;9(5):880-900.
  • Kim CS, Park S, Kim J. The role of glycation in the pathogenesis of aging and its prevention through herbal products and physical exercise. J Exerc Nutrition Biochem. 2017 Sep 30;21(3):55-61.
  • Solana-Manrique C, Sanz FJ, Martinez-Carrion G, et al. Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects of Carnosine: Therapeutic Implications in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Antioxidants (Basel). 2022 Apr 26;11(5).
  • Menon K, Mousa A, de Courten B. Effects of supplementation with carnosine and other histidine-containing dipeptides on chronic disease risk factors and outcomes: protocol for a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. BMJ Open. 2018 Mar 22;8(3):e020623.


  • Rogers J, Harding C, Mayo A, Banks J, Rawlings A. Stratum corneum lipids: the effect of ageing and the seasons. Arch Dermatol Res. 1996 Nov;288(12):765-70. 
  • Guillou S, Ghabri S, Jannot C, Gaillard E, Lamour I, Boisnic S. The moisturizing effect of a wheat extract food supplement on women's skin: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2011 Apr;33(2):138-43.


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  • Vincent JB. Quest for the molecular mechanism of chromium action and its relationship to diabetes. Nutr Rev. 2000 Mar;58(3 Pt 1):67-72.
  • Chen WY, Chen CJ, Liu CH, Mao FC. Chromium supplementation enhances insulin signalling in skeletal muscle of obese KK/HlJ diabetic mice. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2009 Apr;11(4):293-303.
  • Pohl M, Mayr P, Mertl-Roetzer M, et al. Glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with a disease-specific enteral formula: stage II of a randomized, controlled multicenter trial. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009 Jan-Feb;33(1):37-49.
  • Albarracin CA, Fuqua BC, Evans JL, Goldfine ID. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination improves glucose metabolism in treated, uncontrolled overweight to obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2008 Jan-Feb;24(1):41-51.
  • Ryan GJ, Wanko NS, Redman AR, Cook CB. Chromium as adjunctive treatment for type 2 diabetes. Ann Pharmacother. 2003 Jun;37(6):876-85.
  • Cefalu WT, Rood J, Pinsonat P, et al. Characterization of the metabolic and physiologic response to chromium supplementation in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2010 May;59(5):755-62.
  • Frauchiger MT, Wenk C, Colombani PC. Effects of acute chromium supplementation on postprandial metabolism in healthy young men. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Aug;23(4):351-7.
  • Jain SK, Patel P, Rogier K. Trivalent chromium inhibits protein glycosylation and lipid peroxidation in high glucose-treated erythrocytes. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006 Jan-Feb;8(1-2):238-41.
  • Keszthelyi Z, Past T, Koltai K, Szabo L, Mozsik G. Chromium (III)-ion enhances the utilization of glucose in type-2 diabetes mellitus. Orv Hetil. 2003 Oct 19;144(42):2073-6.
  • Geohas J, Daly A, Juturu V, Finch M, Komorowski JR. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Am J Med Sci. 2007 Mar;333(3):145-53.
  • Jain SK, Rains JL, Croad JL. High glucose and ketosis (acetoacetate) increases, and chromium niacinate decreases, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 secretion and oxidative stress in U937 monocytes. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007Oct;9(10):1581-90.


  • Chen W, Lin HR, Wei CM, et al. Echinacoside, a phenylethanoid glycoside from Cistanche deserticola, extends lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans and protects from Abeta-induced toxicity. Biogerontology. 2018;19(1):47-65.
  • Colon G, Saccon T, Schneider A, et al. The enigmatic role of growth hormone in age-related diseases, cognition, and longevity. GeroScience. 2019;41(6):759-774.
  • Wu CJ, Chien MY, Lin NH, et al. Echinacoside Isolated from Cistanche tubulosa Putatively Stimulates Growth Hormone Secretion via Activation of the Ghrelin Receptor. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2019;24(4).
  • Wu CJ, Chien MY, Lin NH, et al. Echinacoside Isolated from Cistanche tubulosa Putatively Stimulates Growth Hormone Secretion via Activation of the Ghrelin Receptor. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2019;24(4).
  • Zhang B, Yang LL, Ding SQ, et al. Anti-Osteoporotic Activity of an Edible Traditional Chinese Medicine Cistanche deserticola on Bone Metabolism of Ovariectomized Rats Through RANKL/RANK/TRAF6-Mediated Signaling Pathways. Frontiers in pharmacology. 2019;10:1412.
  • Wang D, Wang H, Gu L. The Antidepressant and Cognitive Improvement Activities of the Traditional Chinese Herb Cistanche. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 2017;2017:3925903.
  • Lei H, Wang X, Zhang Y, et al. Herba Cistanche (Rou Cong Rong): A Review of Its Phytochemistry and Pharmacology. Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin. 2020;68(8):694-712.
  • Jiang Y, Tu PF. Analysis of chemical constituents in Cistanche species. Journal of chromatography A. 2009;1216(11):1970-1979.

Coenzyme Q10



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  • Zhang Y, Lee ET, Cowan LD, Fabsitz RR, Howard BV. Coffee consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in men and women with normal glucose tolerance: The Strong Heart Study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Jun;21(6):418-23.


  • Barati M, Jabbari M, Navekar R, et al. Collagen supplementation for skin health: A mechanistic systematic review. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2020 May 21.
  • Kim DU, Chung HC, Choi J, et al. Oral Intake of Low-Molecular-Weight Collagen Peptide Improves Hydration, Elasticity, and Wrinkling in Human Skin: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. Nutrients. 2018 Jun 26;10(7).


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  • Janusz M, Zablocka A. Colostrinin: a proline-rich polypeptide complex of potential therapeutic interest. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2013 Nov 3;59(1):4-11.

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  • Stack EC, Matson WR, Ferrante RJ. Evidence of oxidant damage in Huntington’s disease: translational strategies using antioxidants. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008 Dec;1147:79-92.

Cruciferous vegetables

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  • Basu A, Haldar S. Anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effects of benzyl isothiocyanate on human pancreatic cancer cells is linked to death receptor activation and RasGAP/Rac1 down-modulation. Int J Oncol. 2009 Sep;35(3):593-9.



D vitamin

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Digestive enzymes

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  • Martinez, MJ, Bonfill, X, Moreno, RM, Vargas, E, Capella, D. Phlebotonics for venous insufficiency. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(3):CD003229. 11. 
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  • Bentley C, Hazeldine J, Greig C, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone: a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment and rehabilitation of the traumatically injured patient. Burns Trauma. 2019;7:26.
  • Barrett-Connor E, Khaw KT, Yen SS. A prospective study of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, mortality, and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 1986 Dec 11;315(24):1519-24.
  • Veronese N, Trevisan C, De Rui M, et al. Serum Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in Older Men and Women: The Pro.V.A Study. Can J Diabetes. 2016 Apr;40(2):158-63.
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Vitamin E

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  • Brigelius-Floh R, Traber MG. Vitamin E: function and metabolism. FASEB. 1999 Jul;13(10):11455.
  • Clarke MW, Burnett JR, Croft KD. Vitamin E in human health and disease. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2008;45(5):417-50.
  • Shibata A, Nakagawa K, Kawakami Y, Tsuzuki T, Miyazawa T. Suppression of gamma-tocotrienol on UVB induced inflammation in HaCaT keratinocytes and HR-1 hairless mice via inflammatory mediators multiple signaling. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Jun 9;58(11):7013-20. 


  • Brinkeborn RM, Shah DV, Degenring FH. Echinaforce and other Echinacea fresh plant preparations in the treatment of the common cold. A randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Phytomedicine. 1999 Mar;6(1):1-6. 
  •  Available at: Accessed August 12, 2022. Dalby-Brown L, Barsett H, Landbo AK, et al. Synergistic antioxidative effects of alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, and polysaccharide fractions from Echinacea purpurea on in vitro oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Nov 30;53(24):9413-23. 
  • Ritchie MR, Gertsch J, Klein P, et al. Effects of Echinaforce(R) treatment on ex vivo-stimulated blood cells. Phytomedicine. 2011 Jul 15;18(10):826-31. 
  • Park SJ, Lee M, Kim D, et al. Echinacea purpurea Extract Enhances Natural Killer Cell Activity In Vivo by Upregulating MHC II and Th1-type CD4(+) T Cell Responses. J Med Food. 2021 Oct;24(10):1039-49. 
  • Brousseau M, Miller SC. Enhancement of natural killer cells and increased survival of aging mice fed daily Echinacea root extract from youth. Biogerontology. 2005 2005/05/01;6(3):157-63. 
  • Aucoin M, Cardozo V, McLaren MD, et al. A systematic review on the effects of Echinacea supplementation on cytokine levels: Is there a role in COVID-19? Metabol Open. 2021 Sep;11:100115. 
  • Hall H, Fahlman MM, Engels HJ. Echinacea purpurea and mucosal immunity. Int J Sports Med. 2007 Sep;28(9):792-7.

  • Zakay-Rones Z, Thom E, Wollan T, et al. Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. J Int Med Res. 2004 Mar-Apr;32(2):132-40.
  • Hawkins J, Baker C, Cherry L, et al. Black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) supplementation effectively treats upper respiratory symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials. Complement Ther Med. 2019 Feb;42:361-5.
  • Strugala P, Loi S, Bazanow B, et al. A Comprehensive Study on the Biological Activity of Elderberry Extract and Cyanidin 3-O-Glucoside and Their Interactions with Membranes and Human Serum Albumin. Molecules. 2018 Oct 8;23(10):2566.
  • Roschek B, Jr., Fink RC, McMichael MD, et al. Elderberry flavonoids bind to and prevent H1N1 infection in vitro. Phytochemistry. 2009 Jul;70(10):1255-61.


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  • Titova OE, Sjogren P, Brooks SJ, et al. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids is linked to gray matter volume and cognitive function in elderly. Age (Dordr). 2013 Aug;35(4):1495-505.
  • Simopoulos AP. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002 Oct;56(8):365-79.
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  • Tian J, Ma J, Ma K, et al. beta-Glucan enhances antitumor immune responses by regulating differentiation and function of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43(5):1220-30.
  • Qi C, Cai Y, Gunn L, et al. Differential pathways regulating innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses by particulate and soluble yeast-derived beta-glucans. Blood. 2011;117(25):6825-36.
  • Goodridge HS, Reyes CN, Becker CA, et al. Activation of the innate immune receptor Dectin-1 upon formation of a ‘phagocytic synapse’. Nature. 2011;472(7344):471-5.


  • Grynkiewicz G, Demchuk OM. New Perspectives for Fisetin. Front Chem. 2019;7:697.
  • Pal HC, Pearlman RL, Afaq F. Fisetin and Its Role in Chronic Diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;928:213-44.
  • Yousefzadeh MJ, Zhu Y, McGowan SJ, et al. Fisetin is a senotherapeutic that extends health and lifespan. EBioMedicine. 2018 Oct;36:18-28.
  • Ahmad A, Ali T, Park HY, et al. Neuroprotective Effect of Fisetin Against Amyloid-Beta-Induced Cognitive/Synaptic Dysfunction, Neuroinflammation, and Neurodegeneration in Adult Mice. Mol Neurobiol. 2017 Apr;54(3):2269-85.
  • Alikatte K, Palle S, Rajendra Kumar J, et al. Fisetin Improved Rotenone-Induced Behavioral Deficits, Oxidative Changes, and Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rat Modl of Parkinson’s Disease. J Diet Suppl. 2020 Jan 29:1-15.
  • Chen C, Yao L, Cui J, et al. Fisetin Protects against Intracerebral Hemorrhage-Induced Neuroinflammation in Aged Mice. Cerebrovasc Dis . 2018;45(3-4):154-61.
  • Maher P. Modulation of multiple pathways involved in the maintenance of neuronal function during aging by fisetin. Genes Nutr. 2009 Dec;4(4):297-307.
  • Maher P, Akaishi T, Abe K. Flavonoid fisetin promotes ERK-dependent long-term potentiation and enhances memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 31;103(44):16568-73.
  • Zhang L, Wang H, Zhou Y, et al. Fisetin alleviates oxidative stress after traumatic brain injury via the Nrf2-ARE pathway. Neurochem Int. 2018 Sep;118:304-13.
  • Wang L, Cao D, Wu H, et al. Fisetin Prolongs Therapy Window of Brain Ischemic Stroke Using Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2019 Jan-Dec;25:1076029619871359.

Flaxseed oil

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  • Donaldson MS. Nutrition and cancer: a review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet. Nutr J. 2004 Oct 20;3:19.
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  • Dahl WJ, Lockert EA, Cammer AL, Whiting SJ. Effects of flax fiber on laxation and glycemic response in healthy volunteers. J Med Food. 2005;8(4):508-11.


  • Lamers Y, Prinz-Langenohl R, Bramswig S, Pietrzik K. Red blood cell folate concentrations increase more after supplementation with [6S]-5-methyltetrahydrofolate than with folic acid in women of childbearing age. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul;84(1):156-61. 
  • Pietrzik K, Bailey L, Shane B. Folic acid and L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate: comparison of clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2010 Aug;49(8):535-48. 
  • Caruso R, Campolo J, Sedda V, et al. Effect of homocysteine lowering by 5-methyltetrahydrofolate on redox status in hyperhomocysteinemia. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006 Apr;47(4):549-55. 
  • Cianciolo G, La Manna G, Coli L, et al. 5-methyltetrahydrofolate administration is associated with prolonged survival and reduced inflammation in ESRD patients. Am J Nephrol. 2008;28(6):941-8. 
  • Li D, Karp N, Wu Q, et al. Mefolinate (5-methyltetrahydrofolate), but not folic acid, decreases mortality in an animal model of severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2008 Jun;31(3):403-11. 
  • Venn BJ, Green TJ, Moser R, Mann JI. Comparison of the effect of low-dose supplementation with L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate or folic acid on plasma homocysteine: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Mar;77(3):658-62.

French oak wood

  • Ippolito E, Belcaro G, Luzzi R, et al. Robuvit(R): improvement of fatigue in medical convalescence. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2018 May;58(5):678-83. 
  • Belcaro G, Saggino A, Cornelli U, et al. Improvement in mood, oxidative stress, fatigue, and insomnia following supplementary management with Robuvit(R). J Neurosurg Sci. 2018 Aug;62(4):423-7. 
  • Orszaghova Z, Waczulikova I, Burki C, et al. An Effect of Oak-Wood Extract (Robuvit(R)) on Energy State of Healthy Adults-A Pilot Study. Phytother Res. 2015 Aug;29(8):1219-24. 
  • Belcaro G, Cornelli U, Luzzi R, et al. Improved management of primary chronic fatigue syndrome with the supplement French oak wood extract (Robuvit(R)): a pilot, registry evaluation. Panminerva Med. 2014 Mar;56(1):63-72. 
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  • Natella F, Leoni G, Maldini M, et al. Absorption, metabolism, and effects at transcriptome level of a standardized French oak wood extract, Robuvit, in healthy volunteers: pilot study. J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Jan 15;62(2):443-53. 
  • Frank J. The ribosome--a macromolecular machine par excellence. Chem Biol. 2000 Jun;7(6):R133-41. 
  • Thomson E, Ferreira-Cerca S, Hurt E. Eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis at a glance. J Cell Sci. 2013 Nov 1;126(Pt 21):4815-21. 
  • Yamashita D, Sano Y, Adachi Y, et al. hDREF regulates cell proliferation and expression of ribosomal protein genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Mar;27(6):2003-13. 

Garcinia cambogia

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  • J Med Food 2013 Vol. 16 Issue 6 Pages 529-37


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  • Yao W, Ding G, Shen X, et al. A hemodynamics model describing cardiac deficiency of qi(vital energy). Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2002 Jan;19(1):53-6. 
  • Wang JR, Zhou H, Yi XQ, Jiang ZH, Liu L. Total ginsenosides of Radix Ginseng modulates tricarboxylic acid cycle protein expression to enhance cardiac energy metabolism in ischemic rat heart tissues. Molecules. 2012;17(11):12746-57. 
  • Lee NH, Yoo SR, Kim HG, Cho JH, Son CG. Safety and tolerability of Panax ginseng root extract: a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in healthy Korean volunteers. J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Nov;18(11):1061-9. 
  • Choi JY, Woo TS, Yoon SY, et al. Red ginseng supplementation more effectively alleviates psychological than physical fatigue. J Ginseng Res. 2011 Sep;35(3):331-8. 
  • Tadano T, Nakagawasai O, Niijima F, Tan-No K, Kisara K. The effects of traditional tonics on fatigue in mice differ from those of the antidepressant imipramine: a pharmacological and behavioral study. Am J Chin Med. 2000;28(1):97-104. 
  • Song YB, An YR, Kim SJ, et al. Lipid metabolic effect of Korean red ginseng extract in mice fed on a high-fat diet. J Sci Food Agric. 2012 Jan 30;92(2):388-96. 
  • Reay JL, Kennedy DO, Scholey AB. Effects of Panax ginseng, consumed with and without glucose, on blood glucose levels and cognitive performance during sustained ‘mentally demanding’ tasks. J Psychopharmacol. 2006 Nov;20(6):771-81. echinacea


  • Legault Z, Bagnall N, Kimmerly DS. The Influence of Oral L-Glutamine Supplementation on Muscle Strength Recovery and Soreness Following Unilateral Knee Extension Eccentric Exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2015 Oct;25(5):417-26. 
  • Cruzat V, Macedo Rogero M, Noel Keane K, et al. Glutamine: Metabolism and Immune Function, Supplementation and Clinical Translation. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 23;10(11). 
  • Kim MH, Kim H. The Roles of Glutamine in the Intestine and Its Implication in Intestinal Diseases. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 May 12;18(5).




  • Sekhar RV, Patel SG, Guthikonda AP, et al. Deficient synthesis of glutathione underlies oxidative stress in aging and can be corrected by dietary cysteine and glycine supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Sep;94(3):847-53.
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  • Holmay MJ, Terpstra M, Coles LD, et al. N-Acetylcysteine boosts brain and blood glutathione in Gaucher and Parkinson diseases. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2013 Jul-Aug;36(4):103-6.


  • J Biosci. 2009;34(6):853-72. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:1716701. PLoS Genet. 2019;15(3):e1007633. 
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Grape seed extract

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  • Preuss HG, Montamarry S, Echard B, Scheckenbach R, Bagchi D. Long-term effects of chromium, grape seed extract, and zinc on various metabolic parameters of rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2001 Jul;223(1-2):95-102.
  • Preuss HG. Effects of glucose/insulin perturbations on aging and chronic disorders of aging: the evidence. J Am Coll Nutr. 1997 Oct;16(5):397-403.
  • Vogels N, Nijs IM, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. The effect of grape-seed extract on 24 h energy intake in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Apr;58(4):667-73.
  • Pinent M, Blay M, Blade MC, Salvado MJ, Arola L, Ardevol A. Grape seed-derived procyanidins have an antihyperglycemic effect in streptoxotocin-induced diabetic rats and insulinomimetic activity in insulin-sensitive cell lines. Endocrinology. 2004 Nov;145(11):4985-90.

Green tea

  • Scholey A, Downey LA, Ciorciari J, et al. Acute neurocognitive effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Appetite. 2012 Apr;58(2):767-70.


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  • Bruckbauer A, Zemel MB. Effects of dairy consumption on SIRT1 and mitochondrial biogenesis in adipocytes and muscle cells. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2011;8:91.
  • Feige JN, Lagouge M, Canto C, et al. Specific SIRT1 activation mimics low energy levels and protects against diet-induced metabolic disorders by enhancing fat oxidation. Cell Metab. 2008;8(5):347-58.
  • Nissen S, Sharp RL, Panton L, et al. beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in humans is safe and may decrease cardiovascular risk factors. J Nutr. 2000;130(8):1937-45.
  • Nissen SL, Abumrad NN. Nutritional role of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB). The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 1997;8(6):300-11.
  • Smith HJ, Mukerji P, Tisdale MJ. Attenuation of proteasome-induced proteolysis in skeletal muscle by {beta}-hydroxy-{beta}-methylbutyrate in cancer-induced muscle loss. Cancer Res. 2005;65(1):277-83.
  • Smith HJ, Wyke SM, Tisdale MJ. Mechanism of the attenuation of proteolysis-inducing factor stimulated protein degradation in muscle by beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate. Cancer Res. 2004;64(23):8731-5.
  • Wilkinson DJ, Hossain T, Limb MC, et al. Impact of the calcium form of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate upon human skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Clin Nutr. 2017.



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  • Am J Med. 2003 Jun 1;114(8):665-74


Horse chestnut

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  • Ottillinger B, Greeske K. Rational therapy of chronic venous insufficiency--chances and limits of the therapeutic use of horse-chestnut seeds extract. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2001;1:5. 
  • Epub 2001 Dec 7. Diehm C, Trampisch HJ, Lange S, Schmidt C. Comparison of leg compression stocking and oral horse-chestnut seed extract therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. Lancet. 1996 Feb 3;347(8997):292-4.


  • Chatree, S. et al. "Role of Inositols and Inositol Phosphates in Energy Metabolism." Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). November 2020. 

  • Concerto, C. et al. "Neurobiology and Applications of Inositol in Psychiatry: A Narrative Review." Current Issues in Molecular Biology. February 2023.

  • DiNicolantonio, J.J. and J.H. O'Keefe. "Myo-inositol for insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome and gestational diabetes." Open Heart. March 2022. 

  • Nas, K. and L. Tűű. "A comparative study between myo-inositol and metformin in the treatment of insulin-resistant women." European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. June 2017. 

  • Pezza, M. and V. Carlomagno. "Inositol in women suffering from acne and PCOS: a randomized study." Glob Dermatol. 2017. 

  • Soldat-Stanković, V. et al. The effect of metformin and myoinositol on metabolic outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: role of body mass and adiponectin in a randomized controlled trial. J Endocrinol Invest. 2022 March. 

  • Zarezadeh, M. et al. "Inositol supplementation and body mass index: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials." Obesity Science & Practice. October 2021. 



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  • Tuomainen TP, Loft S, Nyyssönen K, Punnonen K, Salonen JT, Poulsen HE. Body iron is a contributor to oxidative damage of DNA. Free Radic Res. 2007 Mar;41(3):324-8.
  • Masini A, Ceccarelli D, Giovannini F, Montosi G, Garuti C, Pietrangelo A. Iron-induced oxidant stress leads to irreversible mitochondrial dysfunctions and fibrosis in the liver of chronic iron-dosed gerbils. The effect of silybin. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2000 Apr;32(2):175-82.
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  • Lipids Health Dis. 2009 Mar 2;8:7

Vitamin K

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  • Kanazawa I. Osteocalcin as a hormone regulating glucose metabolism. World J Diabetes. 2015 Dec 25;6(18):1345-54.
  • Halder M, Petsophonsakul P, Akbulut AC, et al. Vitamin K: Double Bonds beyond Coagulation Insights into Differences between Vitamin K1 and K2 in Health and Disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Feb 19;20(4):896.
  • Walther B, Karl JP, Booth SL, et al. Menaquinones, bacteria, and the food supply: the relevance of dairy and fermented food products to vitamin K requirements. Adv Nutr. 2013 Jul 1;4(4):463-73.
  • Marles RJ, Roe AL, Oketch-Rabah HA. US Pharmacopeial Convention safety evaluation of menaquinone-7, a form of vitamin K. Nutr Rev. 2017 Jul 1;75(7):553-78.
  • Machado-Fragua MD, Hoogendijk EO, Struijk EA, et al. High dephospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein concentrations, a plasma biomarker of vitamin K, in relation to frailty: the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Eur J Nutr. 2020 Apr;59(3):1243-51.
  • Ferland G. Vitamin K and the nervous system: an overview of its actions. Adv Nutr. 2012 Mar 1;3(2):204-12.
  • Kiely A, Ferland G, Ouliass B, et al. Vitamin K status and inflammation are associated with cognition in older Irish adults. Nutr Neurosci. 2020 Aug;23(8):591-9.

K & D vitamins

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Krill oil

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Sesame Extract

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  • Shiitake mushroom

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